Careful quotes place the true quantity between 30 and 40.

  1. See Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 2:272–73.
  2. See Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 2:277–302. Despite claims that Joseph Smith fathered kiddies within plural wedding, hereditary evaluation has up to now been negative, though you are able he fathered 2 or 3 kids with plural spouses. (See Ugo A. Perego, “Joseph Smith, issue of Polygamous Offspring, and DNA Analysis, ” in Newell G. Bringhurst and Craig L. Foster, eds., The Persistence of Polygamy: Joseph Smith as well as the Origins of Mormon Polygamy Independence, MO: John Whitmer Books, 2010, 233–56. )
  3. J. Spencer Fluhman, “A Subject that may Bear Investigation’: Anguish, Faith, and Joseph Smith’s Youngest Plural Wife, ” in Robert L. Millet, ed., No gun Shall Prosper: New Light on Sensitive Issues (Provo and Salt Lake City: Brigham younger University Religious Studies Center and Deseret Book, 2011), 104–19; Craig L. Foster, David Keller, and Gregory L. Smith, “The Age of Joseph Smith’s Plural Wives in Social and Demographic Context, ” in Bringhurst and Foster, eds., The Persistence of Polygamy, 152–83.
  4. Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Autobiography, 2, Church History Library, Salt Lake City.

  5. Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Plural wedding as Taught by the Prophet Joseph: an answer to Joseph Smith, Editor associated with Lamoni (Iowa) “Herald” (Salt Lake City: Juvenile teacher workplace, 1882); Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, the reason We Practice Plural wedding (Salt Lake City: Juvenile teacher workplace, 1884).
  6. Quotes regarding the true amount of these sealings are normally taken for 12 to 14. (See Todd Compton, In Sacred Loneliness: The Plural spouses of Joseph Smith Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1997, 4, 6; Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 1:253–76, 303–48. ) For an summary that is early of training, see John A. Widtsoe, “Evidences and Reconciliations: Did Joseph Smith Introduce Plural Marriage? ” Improvement Period 49, no. 11 (Nov. 1946): 766–67.
  7. Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 1:421–37. Polyandry, the marriage of just one woman to one or more guy, typically involves provided economic, domestic, and resources that are sexual and kids in many cases are raised communally. There’s no proof that Joseph Smith’s sealings functioned this way, and evidence that is much against that view.
  8. Rex Eugene Cooper, guarantees designed to the Fathers: Mormon Covenant Organization (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1990), 138–45; Jonathan A. Stapley, “Adoptive Sealing Ritual in Mormonism, ” Journal of Mormon History 37, # 3 (Summer 2011): 53–117.
  9. For overview of the data, see Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 1:390–96.
  10. Richard Lyman Bushman, Joseph Smith: Rough bi chat rooms Rock Rolling (Nyc: Knopf, 2005), 440.
  11. See Lorenzo Snow, deposition, usa Testimony 1892 (Temple Lot Case), component 3, p. 124.
  12. The revelation on marriage supplied effective incentives for a wedding performed by priesthood authority. (See Doctrine and Covenants 132:17–19, 63. )
  13. Zina Huntington Jacobs, autobiographical design, Zina Card Brown Family Collection, Church History Library, Salt Lake City; spelling modernized.
  14. The record that is historical striking when it comes to shortage of criticism discovered among those that had when been Joseph Smith’s plural spouses, although almost all of the spouses left no written record.
  15. Joseph Smith, Journal, Aug. 16, 1842, in Andrew H. Hedges, Alex D. Smith, and Richard Lloyd Anderson, eds., Journals, amount 2: 1841–April 1843, vol. 2 of the Journals series of The Joseph Smith Papers, edited by Dean C. Jessee, Ronald K. Esplin, and Richard Lyman Bushman (Salt Lake City: Church Historian’s Press, 2011), 93–96, available at; Mary Audentia Smith Anderson, ed., Joseph Smith III and the Restoration (Independence, MO: Herald House, 1952), 85 december.
  16. Jenson, “Historical Record, ” 229–30, 240; Emily Dow Partridge Young, deposition, usa Testimony 1892 (Temple Lot Case), component 3, pp. 365–66, 384; Orson Pratt, in Journal of Discourses, 13:194.
  17. Hales, Joseph Smith’s Polygamy, 2:8, 48–50, 80; Bushman, harsh Stone Rolling, 473.
  18. Doctrine and Covenants 132:54, 64. The caution to Emma Smith additionally relates to all whom get sacred ordinances by authority of this priesthood but don’t abide the covenants connected with those ordinances. See, as an example, Psalm 37:38; Isaiah 1:28; Acts 3:19–25; and Doctrine and Covenants 132:26, 64.
  19. Doctrine and Covenants 132:61. In Utah, the wife that is first area of the plural wedding ceremony, standing between her spouse while the bride and putting the hand for the bride when you look at the hand of this spouse. “Celestial Marriage, ” The Seer 1 (Feb. 1853): 31.
  20. Doctrine and Covenants 132:65; see also Genesis 16:1–3.
  21. Jacob 2:30.
  22. From the relevant concern of children, see note 6 of “Plural Marriage and Families in Early Utah. ”

  23. Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Why We Practice Plural Marriage, 23–24.
  24. Heber C. Kimball, Discourse, Sept. 2, 1866, George D. Watt Papers, Church History Library, Salt Lake City, transcribed from Pitman shorthand by LaJean Purcell Carruth.
  25. Brigham younger, in Journal of Discourses, 3:266.
  26. Brigham younger, Discourse, June 18, 1865, George D. Watt Papers, Church History Library, Salt Lake City, transcribed from Pitman shorthand by LaJean Purcell Carruth; see additionally Brigham Young, in Journal of Discourses, 11:128.
  27. Orson F. Whitney, lifetime of Heber C. Kimball, an Apostle: the paternalfather and Founder associated with BritishMission (Salt Lake City: Kimball Family, 1888), 338; see additionally Kiersten Olson, “‘The Embodiment of Strength and Endurance’: Vilate Murray Kimball (1806–1867), ” in Women of Faith within the Latter times, Volume One, 1775–1820, ed. Richard E. Turley Jr. And Brittany A. Chapman (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 2011), 137.
  28. Lucy Walker Kimball, “Brief Biographical Sketch, ” 10–11, Church History Library, Salt Lake City.
  29. Sarah Granger Kimball, as an example, rejected marriage that is plural Nauvoo but came west because of the Saints. A number of the people who rejected plural wedding, including Emma Smith, later on became users of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.
  30. As an example, see “Evidence from Zina D. Huntington-Young, ” Saints’ Herald, Jan. 11, 1905, 29; Mary Elizabeth Rollins Lightner, “Mary Elizabeth Rollins, ” Susa Young Gates Papers, Utah State Historical Society.
  31. Gordon B. Hinckley, “ What Are People Asking about Us? ” Ensign, Nov. 1998; “Polygamy, ” Newsroom, subjects page.
  32. Alma 26:35; Doctrine and Covenants 88:41; 1 Nephi 11:17.

The Church acknowledges the contribution of scholars into the historical content presented in this specific article; their work is combined with authorization.